In the Electrical Safety Program in 110.1(B), you can see Inspection. So now, if I have some newly installed equipment or modified electrical equipment, I've got to make sure it's been inspected to make sure that it complies with the National Electrical Code, the manufacturer's recommendations, and the other standards that might be out there prior to being placed into service. So I'm not sure if you understand this part or not, but OSHA loves everything documented, right? So when this inspection occurs to equipment that was newly installed or modified, I would make sure that we documented that inspection. Now, that could be a self-inspection. You could have an engineering team, and they could come out and inspect it themselves. That could be an outside entity. You could have an electrical inspector come in and inspect that, or you could even have maybe the manufacturer of the equipment come and see if it was installed correctly. So it just has to be something that is documented and somebody has said, "Yes, this is good to go. We can now energize and make this happen."
They gave us a new informational note for shock hazard. So informational note is now talking about injury and damage to health, and it's telling us that shock is dependent on the magnitude of the current, the power source, the frequency has a huge determination if we're going to get hurt or not, and the path, and the time duration. So they did a lot with shock and statistics with their new Annex K. So Annex K has changed quite a bit. And when you do receive either your PDF or your hard copy, you can take a look now at Annex K, they've updated all their statistics and facts about shock, so they also gave us this informational note.
Working distance, they played just a little bit with, and I find that, when I teach live seminars, a lot of people just don't understand working distance. So, basically, this is where we're going to make a prediction of how much energy is going to come at the person's face and chest area. So if we are below 1,000 volts, that working distance is usually at 18 inches away. So we have to understand, "Okay, at 18 inches away, we made a prediction." Seven calories per centimeter squared of incident energy. Well, that's great. I don't think personally at my age that I can work 18 inches away from equipment. I believe I've got to get a little bit closer. So they gave us this note that said that, "Incident energy increases as the distance from the arc source decreases." So when I get closer, that seven calories has gone up, and I've got to make sure that my arc rated clothing will reflect that as I get closer. Definitely, my eyes have probably got to get closer, you know, and my hands have to get closer. But they're talking about your face and your chest. If you can keep that 18 inches away, then you would be at that incident energy level that we did predict at that piece of equipment.
Application of Safety-Related Work Practices
Next, we getting out of Definitions now, and we go up into Article 105 and employer responsibility. Just about everything falls on the employer, whether it's OSHA's Code of Federal Regulations 1910 and 1926 or NFPA 70E. So, "The employer shall have the following responsibilities, establish, document, and implement the safety-related work practices and procedures required by this standard." So you have to have an electrical safety program, and it has to be documented, and you have to use it. Also, "Have to provide employees with training in the employer's safety-related work practices and procedures." That training also should be documented, but you have to have that training down.
The employee responsibility, a little bit there, pretty much every place that we look at, we'll see that the only thing that the employee has to do is follow the rules. So whether it's OSHA or NFPA, really doesn't matter. So the employee has to comply with all the work practices and procedures that the employer has provided to them. But even though the employee shall comply, it is still up to the employer that they are complying. So inside your electrical safety program, you should have something for consequences. We just can't let these technicians out there working, you know, with no PPE or without whatever. They have to follow what we have in writing. And then 105.4, and I've mentioned this already, but, out of the six mitigation techniques we have, the number one is elimination. So that's the first priority in the implementation of these safety-related work practices, and that's true of any NFPA document. When they give you choices, number one is the best choice.
We get up in now into Article 110. If you do have an incident in your facility, we are going to now have to have a little investigation here. So, "The electrical safety program shall include elements to investigate electrical incidents." And these could be near misses, close call, whatever they end up might be, but the theory behind this is that, if we do do an investigation, then we might be able to prevent this from happening again. Why did we have this close call? Why... You know, and try to help solve that problem, get to the root cause and just make sure it doesn't happen to another worker.